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Charles B. Harris University of California, Berkeley K. Sawyer, J. Cahoon, J. Shanoski, E. Glascoe, M. Kling, J. Schlegel, M. Zoer, L. Anderson, M. Hapke, H. Frei, J. Hartwig, C. Webster, C. Harris: Timeresolved IR studies on the mechanism for C-H bond activation by tungsten-boryl complexes. Krenner, Prof. Pierre M. Krenner, Pierre M. Petroff: Quantum posts with tailored structural, electronic and optical properties for optoelectronic and quantum electronic device applications.
In: Solid State Communications. Oliver Gywat, Hubert J. Kriener, Dr. Yoshiteru Maeno Kyoto University M. Kriener, T. Muranaka, Z. Ren, J. Kato, J. Akimitsu, and Y. Maeno : Superconductivity of hexagonal heavily-boron doped silicon carbide. Kriener, M. Braden, H. Kierspel, D. Senff, O. Zabara, C. Zobel, and T. Muranaka, Y. Kikuchi, J. Maeno : Specific heat of aluminium-doped superconducting silicon carbide.
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Yonezawa, G. Bao, S. Harada, Y. Kondo, Y. Nakashima, Y. Ota, Y. Ishida, W. Malaeb, K. Okazaki, S. Shin, M. Ando, K. Sasaki, and M. Kriener : Experimental studies of the topological superconductor CuxBi2Se3. Novak, S. Ando: Unusual nature of the fully-gapped superconductivity in In-doped SnTe. Kurz, Dr.
David J. Hume, Philipp N. Plessow, David R. Leibrandt, Dietrich Leibfried: Preparation and coherent manipulation of pure quantum states of a single molecular ion. In: Journal of the Amercian Chemical Society. Dauth, T. Ziroff, M. Wiessner, A. Reinert, M. Arita, K. Shimada: Orbital Density Reconstruction for Molecules. Langen, Dr. Wenzel, F. Schmidt, M. Eisenmann, T. Langen, T. Pfau, I. Wu, D. Reens, T. Langen, Y. Shagam, D. Fontecha, J. Ye: Enhancing radical molecular beams by skimmer cooling.
Ferrier-Barbut, M. Langen, M. Isoard, S. Stringari, T. Pfau : Scissors mode of dipolar quantum droplets. Schweigler, E. Demler, J. Schmiedmayer : Double light-cone dynamics establish thermal states in integrable 1D Bose gases. In: New J. Reens, H. Wu, T. Langen, J. Ye : Controlling spin flips of molecules in an electromagnetic trap. Langen, I. Ferrier-Barbut, T.
Pfau : Striped states in a many-body system of tilted dipoles. Schweigler, V. Kasper, S. Erne, I. Mazets, B. Rauer, F. Cataldini, T. Gasenzer, J. Berges, J. Schmiedmayer: Experimental characterization of a quantum many-body system via higher-order correlations. Leppert, Dr. Leblebici, L. Leppert, Y. Li, S. Reyes-Lillo, S. Wickenburg, E. Wong, J. Lee, M. Melli, D. Ziegler, D. Angell, D. Ogletree, P. Ashby, F. Toma, J. Neaton, I. Sharp, A. Weber-Bargioni: Facet-dependent photovoltaic efficiency variations in single grains of hybrid halide perovskite. In: Nature Energy.
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Payne and D. Gallagher: A three-dimensional meshrefinement algorithm with low boundary reflections for the simulation of metallic structures. In: International Journal of Numerical Modelling. Petersen, Prof.
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Bass, Berndt Mueller: Translation of collision geometry fluctuations into momentum anisotropies in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. In: Journal of Physics G. G: Nucl. Pleier, Priv. In: Int. A24, , p. Porod, Prof. Jose W. Valle Universidad de Valencia F. De Campos, O. Eboli, M. Hirsch, M. Magro, W. Porod, D.
Restrepo and J. Esteves, J. Romao, M. Hirsch, F. Staub and W. Porod: Supersymmetric type-III seesaw: lepton flavour violating decays and dark matter. Hirsch, A. Vicente, W. Porod and F. In: JHEP. Hirsch, L. Reichert and W. Porod: Supersymmetric mass spectra and the seesaw scale. Hirsch, W. Porod, F. Staub and A. Vicente: Dark matter and LHC phenomenology in a left-right supersymmetric model. Malinsky, W. Porod, L. Reichert and F. Preu, Prof.
Burke, Mark S. Sherwin, and Arthur C. Gossard: An improved model for non-resonant terahertz detection in field-effect transistors. Burke, Nguyen Q. Vinh, Mark S. Sherwin, Arthur C. THz Sci. Gossard: Detection of nanosecond-scale, high power THz pulses with a field effect transistor. It is now Trotsky who orders the Red Army to punish the workers who want to be active participants in the new society 66— Weiss has no interest in depicting Trotsky and Lenin as innocent victims.
This and other scenes highlight that both of them favored violence and disregarded individual human freedom and life when they thought that the revolution was in danger. Stalin will later denounce this view as counterrevolutionary internationalism. Asian, African American, Latin American, and European students discuss their respective strategic debates with Trotsky and offer a series of critical questions to him.
A German student insists that a revolution that still keeps the mind under authoritative control is not only incomplete but betrays its own alleged purpose of liberation. Sie, Genosse Trotzki, haben die Zwangsarbeit eingeleitet, die heute verwirklicht ist. From the stage background, a long scene from the Stalinist Moscow show trials emerges. As is the case throughout the play, discussions with befriended intellectuals, artists, and activists form the center of the drama. The French writer, whose works Weiss admired, visited Trotsky in his Mexican exile, and they co-authored a manifesto of surrealism.
Trotsky, who is shown again in the position of concentrated reading and correcting, is killed with an ice axe, but the audience does not witness the murder. The stage becomes dark and silent before the axe hits Trotsky. During the s, the drama was performed in approximately thirty cities, mainly in Germany, but also in Sweden , Hungary , England , and 26 Yugoslavia All three buildings can be described as what the singer calls his prison.
This statement will be echoed by the singer in the very last verse of the play, this time directed to the audience, leaving it open to how far the prison is extending through time and space, and how its 29 perpetuation can be countered ; Hegel warns against the use of violence and advocates patience and a belief in the gradual education of mankind, which in his eyes is too immature to act by itself.
This rhetoric of justification of the current state of affairs and of restraint in the name of education will be echoed throughout the play by Fichte and Goethe, as well as by merchants and bankers. Hegel continues to lecture his roommates on the 30 necessity of patient education and slow evolution However, he displays a benevolent and relaxed mood when he indulges in sharing the latest good news from France, the murder of Marat.
At the end of the scene, Hegel is standing aside. When one of the students, Hiller, is calling for a lifelong violent uprising, Hegel, having just taken a pinch of snuff, ends the scene with 32 an ironic sneeze Heinrich von Kalb, the father of the household, has spent time in America, where he was accompanying and fighting with George Washington and Lafayette.
Heinrich von Kalb proudly instructs his son about his experiences with and the desirability of slavery. Weiss ascribes an active political awareness to Fritz von Kalb, who goes on to juxtapose the violence that he suffers from his father and the violence that is inflicted on slaves and Native Americans.
Fritz also observes that his mother, Charlotte von Kalb, experiences violent abuse and, suffering from her domestic constraints and from a cruel husband, is constantly weeping. Only the intonation of 33 her weeping changes when the father leaves Disconcerted and speechless, he covers his face with his hands. One century before the Russian writer Aleksandra Kollontai — , Wilhelmine Kirms advocates free love. The scene ends with a versified discussion between the singer and commentator and two workers. In his view, he is a mere stranger who interrupts an important debate. While Goethe is leafing through a bundle of manuscripts, Schiller lectures on the education of human beings.
The scene puts the emphasis on the fact that even he is afraid of the concrete consequences of his teachings and retreated to the same abstract humanistic ideology of patience and educational evolution that Goethe, Schiller, and Hegel have at their effortless disposal. When Fichte approaches the podium, the male and female workers leave 37 In the eighth scene of the second act, students burn books. While the historical Fichte resigned from his position of university president in Berlin because he was the only faculty member who wanted to punish fraternities that harassed a Jewish student, and while he never was a racist or a militarist, he was nevertheless turned into a forefather of fascism both by the fascists and by some modern scholars.
The stage directions suggest that through fast movements and constant repositionings, as well as by using music that repeatedly seems to recede and come closer again, the whole scene should be reminiscent of a danse macabre A dance of death is also taking place in the form of a conversation between the merchants and bank owners who regret that there are no German colonies comparable to British and Dutch possessions overseas.
They sugar their obsession for money with benevolent words of support for the arts and of gracious humanism and the necessity to educate and control peoples of other continents for their own good. Weiss juxtaposes the elitist and hypocritical verbal exchanges of the owners of banks and of human beings on the one hand and brief and straightforward dialogues between workers who begin to wonder why they allow the aristocrats and mansion and park owners to be in charge while they easily outnumber them 40 on the other But the first act of the play does not end in intellectual sublimation of the existing order.
Schmid extends his critique to the United States and its 41 system of slavery Before the play begins, however, they engage in personal and political disputes. Schmid is characterized as a radical revolutionary who has become a volunteer soldier in the German fight against Napoleon, whom 42 he despises as the traitor of the revolution Hegel, on the other hand, defends Napoleon as a heroic figure comparable to Caesar and Alexander, as a lucid and pragmatic politician whose deeds are justified because he is inhabited by the world spirit.
Schmid expresses his suspicion that Schelling and Hegel have turned into opportunistic conservatives who affirm the existing order of the state in order to achieve a tenured status at their universities. While he is facing political intrigues that are orchestrated by Hermokrates, a power hungry high priest, and other opponents, Empedocles retreats to Mt.
Aetna and jumps into the volcano. Schelling expresses a thorough interest and sympathy with Empedocles, while Hegel dismisses his behavior as a sign and result of inexcusable political incompetence. Hegel and Schelling react to the Empedocles rehearsal with varying degrees of rejection. Poetry, Schelling argues, is the only remaining realm where human beings are able to revolutionize their 45 personality Weiss puts the most concrete interpretive question into the mouth of the glazier Wagner, who asks how Empedocles and his small group of loyal followers can help the oppressed people when in fact without their help they would not be able to survive by themselves.
The playwright within the play uses the antagonistic configuration of his Empedocles drama in order to criticize his former friends by counting Hegel and other seemingly omniscient and saturated spectators among the self-congratulatory opportunists who first idolize and then persecute any Empedocles. Rather than mourning the loss of clearly delineated guidelines or facial features of a resistance leader, they agree to read it as an opportunity to fill that absence with their own thoughts and lives.
The final scene of the play echoes allusions to the Nazi dictatorship from the first act. This encounter is fictional. However, they retreated from him as soon as he displayed his first symptoms of mental imbalance. The play is, however, congruent with biographical data in describing Hegel and Schelling as intellectuals who abandon the enthusiastic radicalism of their youth in order to embark upon successful academic careers. Eventually, they not only discontinue their communication with him, but even cease to talk about him.
The encounter, invented by Weiss, serves to emphasize his belief in the complementary nature of exploratory writing and focused political projects. One production opened in Bremen, under the direction of Helm Bindseil, and the other in Krefeld, directed by Joachim 55 Fontheim. Over the next two years, it was performed in a few other German cities as well as in Norway and Yugoslavia.
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Weiss emphasizes the use of the stage as a laboratory that allows the spectators to witness artistic psychosocial experiments. Immobilized by his own his lack of political awareness, K remains stuck between the distorting mir56 rors of an order whose stability he fails to question Weiss injects not only heavy doses of an anticapitalist impetus into the plot, but, as Kremer writes, he also adds the stubborn resistance of grotesque 58 animality. Weiss and his wife, Gunilla Palmstierna-Weiss, also directed the drama, which premiered in Stockholm in One year later, the first German performance was directed by Roberto Ciulli in Berlin.
The first American version was put on stage at Duke University in Today, this drama reads like a lucid critique of globalization and multinational companies. Weiss wants to focus on the internal contradictions of people who desperately attempt to adapt 59 to or to liberate themselves from the rules of capitalist society. Only two characters in the play, Leni and the subversive painter Titorelli, keep their personalities from being split.
K realizes too late that the com60 pany has turned his civil presence and humanistic ideals into their alibi. In the beginning scene of the first act, K is surprised by a grotesque nocturnal visit. Three men from his company, Franz and Willem, two workers who will later make swift careers and who will eventually literally watch him die like a dog in the final scene of the play, as well as the engineer Kaminer, let themselves into his room in the middle of the night to examine the disturbing noise that he has complained about.
In the third scene, Frau Grubach, his landlady, helps K to get dressed, obviously a daily routine. K eventually reveals the core of his discontent to Frau Grubach, his unsuccessful search for comprehensive explanations and for a clear understanding of everything, his longing for a free society in which 61 nothing and nobody is misunderstood At times, seemingly negligible stage directions turn out to foreshadow later events.
For example, when his landlady is binding his tie, K exposes his neck, and at the beginning of scene 4, everything that used 62 to be identifiable in the room is fading — In the fourth scene, K reiterates his need for a comprehensive knowledge of his surroundings. He confides to Rabensteiner, a career minded colleague who reminds him of the necessity of possessing expertise in the real estate market and global capital transactions, that a only a concrete and overarching order is the object of his desire: Grade das Gesicherte ist es, das mich unsicher macht.
Ich will die Ordnung! Aber eine andre Ordnung. She seemingly enjoys the fact that K is even more miserable. There is, however, a brief moment in the ninth scene when the two of them have a true exchange of thoughts about art, which K identifies as his tool to temporarily forget his helplessness because it points at something inherently different from what surrounds him in daily life.
Having been relieved of his previous function, which included the handling of complaints, a task that he has pursued with fairness and sympathy and, in the eyes of the company, in an all too lenient way, K is promoted to a rather nebulous position. With Leni, his new secretary who becomes a true friend and who does not follow her original order to report on K to the company, K visits several illegal political meetings.
When K is wondering why so many people are attending the meetings, Leni responds that the lack of organizational predictability 63 forms the main point of attraction But the spark of spontaneous resistance does not glimmer for a long time in the play. Scene 19, toward the end of the second act, provides contours of a state of mind that might enable one to disentangle oneself from the web of globalized greed and opportunism, which the play depicts as almost inescapable. In his reflections on his art and craft, the painter Titorelli refuses all nostalgic escapism and insists that being an artist means to do violence to life.
According to Titorelli, art should not deliver any harmonious components for the sake of achieving soothing edification. When K and Leni tentatively ask him whether he creates clarity or beauty, Titorelli replies that purity is an illusion of consumers of art. In his eyes, 64 his paintings embody dirt, blood, and feces Titorelli has also given up the myth of the inspired solitary artist. He frequently invites people from the street to participate in the production of his paintings, the messier the process of cooperation, he points out, the better.
His vulnerability, which manifests itself in repeated emotional breakdowns, and his emphasized disillusionment about his craft and the world of which it is a part have led the painter Titorelli to a mental state of emptiness that allows him to survive in a rebellious niche. He has created a minimal habitat of creative resistance for himself in which nothing is 65 predictable Titorelli is the only character in the play that dares to voice his opposition to corporate globalizers.
He insists that his paintings are not for them but rather aimed against them 66 Throughout the rest of the play, Weiss parodizes rhetorical strategies of a powerful elite, which presents itself as immensely concerned about peace and human progress but cynically uses these terms as code words for war and the ruthless destruction of human values. As the discussions of these plays show, Weiss was far from being a deconstructionist.
He can be read as a modernist who still seeks lucidity and a recognizable nexus of mind and society. Der neue Prozess, his final play, puts the processes and procedures of obedience on trial and insists on the necessity to be rewritten by creatively receptive readers and audiences. Notes 1 All following excerpts and quotations from this play refer to the following edition: Die Verfolgung und Ermordung Jean Paul Marats dargestellt durch die Schauspielgruppe des Hospizes zu Charenton unter Antleitung des Herrn de Sade.
Drama in zwei Akten. Ihre Bewegungen sind die einer Somnambulen. Ein paar Schwestern stellen sich vor den Patienten auf und singen eine Litanei zur Beruhigung. Zum Beispiel als sehr verhaltenes Kammerspiel. Ihr sprecht zwar vom Absterben des Staats. Aber das werdet ihr vergessen, wenn ihr erst mal euern Machtapparat habt. Fortschritt liegt in der Macht der Forscher, Rechner, Organisatoren. Dieser Begriff hat viele von uns verwirrt. Wir wiesen den individuellen Terror ab. Wir haben versucht, diesen Staat lebendig, demokratisch zu machen. Wir konnten ihn nicht errichten ohne die zentralisierte Partei.
Und jetzt hat sich die Maschine gegen uns gekehrt. Wir haben nur diese einzige Waffe. Einige Sekunden Stille. Dann Schreie, Weinen. Er niest. Die Arbeiter und Arbeiterinnen ab. Abschaum, Ausgeburt des Leidens. Blutet alles. Eingeweide sinds. Kot ist es. Absolut leer. Roman, edited by Hans-Gerd Koch Frankfurt a. Without the excessive explorations of narrative deadlocks and exercises in disturbing repetitiveness that marks his early prose, Weiss, who conceded the slow maturation process of his art, would probably not have been able to produce his more complex and inexhaustibly rich later works.
The fact that much of his early prose was rejected by publishers and only became accessible after Weiss had become famous might indicate the unfinished character of the early prose texts that often read like self-absorbed psychoanalytic vignettes and dream journals. A microscopic view replaces any desire for recognizable coherence.
In rudimentary form, one could even argue that already in his early prose, Weiss tries to blend blurry journeys into the unconscious with observations of the social world and its forms of violence. Hardly any twentieth-century writer refuses to seek refuge in easy closure to the extent that Weiss does. The reader might ask how we can write, what modes of expression are open to us, how we can be political without becoming sterile and predictable, and how we can explore emotions without domesticating them through rigid interpretive schemes.
It does not offer much relief from a dominant, spiraling, almost autistic tension. In this regard, Weiss turns his reader into an imaginative writer. The lyrical narrative voice understands the process of writing and the search for geo-symbolic interpretations as an existential response to being 3 wounded from, and by, birth A labyrinth is characterized as a protective shelter that harbors the threat 4 of lethal petrification The text represents dreamlike explorations of postwar Berlin in the immediate postwar years.
A plurality of narrative poetic voices approaches Berlin with a parachute, and observations of the destroyed city and its people alternate, or merge with, dream sequences and childhood memo6 ries that include a dead little sister. The voice of a prison or concentration camp survivor, or the voice of a murdered prisoner, affirms an inner invulnerability.
It is immediately followed by another voice that concedes 7 that it provides a locus for evil, destruction, and decay 70— Ich werde erstickt, doch ich lebe. The first person narrator imagines the trees to be female human bodies who are raped and cut and whose skin is peeled off by an 10 anonymous perpetrator. Der Vogelfreie , The Outcast , the first novel that Weiss wrote in German, was rejected by several German publishers in including 12 Peter Suhrkamp. Weiss translated it into Swedish under the title Dokument I and published copies privately in The homeless and vulnerable protagonist finds himself encapsulated in anonymity and only slowly gains a sense of identity and orientation.
More and more, his painful efforts to understand his environment and to map out inner and outer landscapes help him to overcome his exiled isolation in an unwelcoming city where he is met with aggressive suspicion. His acute perceptions, however, soon convince him that his city exile is nothing but a fictitious and phantas14 magoric product of an imagination in fear and pain His explorations lead the outcast to the conviction that he has powerful bodily omniscience at his disposal.
He declares that neither temporal nor spatial boundaries limit his perceptiveness. The narrative voice declares that it witnesses the sexual act whose result it is. The details of this dreamlike vision include a basement and the awareness that outside on the streets people were killed. A bleeding face stares into the window while the unborn narrator observes 16 how he is conceived — Dancing becomes his mode of expression, which allows him to fuse erotic impulses with an unfulfilled desire for universal dialogue 17 — But the solitary dance, whether imagined or practiced, does not meet any response.
The desire for a fulfilling dialogical life is expressed in the utopia of a society where human beings begin to recognize each other and engage in genuine communicative exchanges. The outcast feels absorbed by impressions and 18 driven to reinterpret them ; ; However, in his final epic work, Weiss balances the immersion in unconscious impulses and in autistic isolation, in which Der Fremde remains entrapped, with an emphasis on rational thought and meaningful communication.
Only in , a German translation by Wiebke Ankersen has been published. The first person narrator describes his life and his discussions with a group of friends, a small circle of seemingly cynical and detached but in fact melancholic and desperate artists and intellectuals. The novel is rich in passages that contain a substantial self-critique of the intellectual in the 22 postwar Western world. The text was 24 written in and privately published in The male protagonist is obsessed by a woman named Lea. His imagination has turned her into an aesthetic object.
Slowly, he realizes that a liberating separation is necessary for him in order to survive. The text records in minute detail observations on a farm and depicts a world that, as Pasinato writes, is not localized but 26 that could take place everywhere. Throughout the first third of the text, he writes in the present tense, suggesting an immediate and unprocessed notation of sense data.
The farm is inhabited by several adults, who appear to be unrelated, to each other, and by a small family with two children. Snow , who collects stones, a maid, and a coachman. From the vantage point of an outhouse, the observer, who, like the narrator of Der Fremde, functions as a seismograph, begins to record his surround28 ings with his pencil, turning seeing into his primary concern The title refers to the end of the narrative, when the observational eye, which is also witnessing domestic aggression, for example the corporal punishment of a child, becomes a voyeur of silhouettes and describes how he sees the shadows of a coachman and a maid engage in sexual intercourse 26— Alone in his bed, the narrating observer regularly conducts ophthalmic self-experiments.
He puts salt into his eyes, hoping to approach uncharted visual territory and to attain more precise visions 15—16; 34— While the family remains in a living room next door, the group of strangers join together for dinner 17— The characters remain shadows of objects without any psychologically rich personalities.
Their inner worlds remain inaccessible to the narrator, who does not even try to seek any recourse to a coherent logic. The myopic focus of the narrator provides daily life chores with abysmal absurdity. The lack of emotions in an aseptically observed and minutely depicted world leaves the reader without any orientation. The narrator refuses to tell a story along recognizable plot lines. His estranged gaze renders a meticulous picture not of living and individual faces, but rather of surface patterns and the reconfiguration of visually recycled phenomena.
As Soboczynski writes, the narrative is void of any closure and oper31 ates with arbitrary beginnings and open endings. Language, the outside world, and its perception form a collage that is not held together by any moralistic message. The text displays the vanishing of coherent communication. It exemplifies the deadlock of mimetic or realistic writing by taking it to an absurd extreme.
Although the title announces a conversation, the text can be more aptly characterized as a casual intertwining and shifting configuration of monologues that, like their speakers, are only loosely connected with each other and 33 do not display any teleological desire for direction or narrative closure. It is never clear who is speaking, perceiving, and remembering, and this apparent blurring of identity boundaries operates as an organizing and destabilizing textual principle. The protagonists and narrators are three exchangeable and unidentifiable men whose names are Abel, Babel, and Cabel.
The three men, who appear to be undistinguishable, have met 34 each other by coincidence on a bridge and in a park They walk restlessly and utter words, in separate yet continuing paragraphs, whose speaker is never identified. Connective topical tissue is provided by reoccurring locations and themes, for example pregnant women, ending relationships, and a ferryman. Scenes of domestic abuse and violence culminate in references to warfare and allusions to the Shoah — At times, a speaker recasts his previous fragmentary utterances, trying unsuccessfully to recollect his 36 memories in a more precise manner Despite the title, a conversation never takes place.
The text is organized around an irreconcilable contradiction between concrete and detailed descriptions on the one hand and a lack of comprehensible coherence on the other. In his later novels, Weiss moved beyond the stagnant circularity of the narrative deadlocks discussed in this chapter. Bearbeitet und herausgegeben von Peter U. Im Anfang war alles ein einziger Schrei, ein einziger Schmerz, ein einziger Verlust, eine einzige klaffende Wunde. Erster Band Frankfurt a.
He rejects the work because, in his view, the narrator, whom Beise holds to be identical with Weiss, is too self-absorbed to describe the victims of war from an unassuming perspective. Eine Art Seismograph. Ich selbst: die Wachheit meiner Sinne. Ich suche nichts. Nehme nur entgegen, vertiefe die Zeichen, finde andre Zeichen klingend darunter [. Roman, translated by Wiebke Ankersen Frankfurt a. Erster Band: Gedichte. Erster Teil, edited by Ernst Zinn Frankfurt a. Ich bin nie in dem Haus gewesen, ich stand nur am Zaun [. Shortly after the subsequent deaths of his mother and father in and , Weiss wrote two major works of autobiographical fiction.
The narrator of Abschied von den Eltern examines his complicated 2 relationship to his parents. He remembers his mother as aggressive and violent, especially towards her maid Auguste, who at times obediently punishes herself in order to appease the mother. Auguste is characterized as being always gentle.
Unlike the mother, she spends a great amount of time with the child, providing continuity and reliability, while the mother often disappears 65— The narrator remembers the physical pain and the humiliation that were inflicted on him by a neighbor child and by a teacher 71— Fritz, the father of the family, encourages the children to run around naked. Years later, Fritz helps to ease the tension when the narrator, who has just given up his plans to run away from home, has to confess that he will not be promoted to the next grade.
The narrator remembers his momentary insight as a child that an alternative to a childhood marked by feelings of insecu3 rity, guilt, and fear was possible The narrator of Abschied von den Eltern concludes that, far from signaling an ethical achievement, the fact that he personally did not commit any war crimes might be a mere result of contingent circumstances.
An avid reader who fills his room with his own drawings, the teenager feels an explosive force inside of him and is frustrated that his parents ignore his creative beginnings.
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As a form of protest and in order to explore his sexual appetite, he repeatedly visits his sister Margit during the night. However, the text emphasizes the gentleness and mutual consent between brother and 4 sister and suggests that they stop short of making love 95— His beloved sister dies in a car accident in front of the family house 99— In the course of the brief but intense friendship with Jacques, a young and poor artist, the protagonist partly succeeds in shaking off the sterile routine that used to enfold him.
After thirteen days that are filled with mutually inspiring conversations that culminate in the spontaneous organization of an unsuccessful but nevertheless exhilarating exhibition, Jacques suddenly decides to leave London, and their friendship comes to an early end. Having moved to Prague in order to study at the art academy, the protagonist experiences episodes of impotence.
His fear of the female body and of intimate closeness to a woman is triggered by the fact that every woman with whom he begins to share intimate closeness all of a sudden reminds him of his dead sister. Suffering from loneliness, he even thinks of taking his own life. What prevents him from committing suicide is his concrete hope for an end of his personal isolation and his belief that a loving unity with a woman will not always remain an unrealizable wish. The narrator convinces himself that is possible to overcome loneliness 8 and to experience genuine love Eventually, the young man has an effortlessly fulfilling sexual experience that is completely free of any fear or inhibition.
In retrospect, he emphasizes that a temporary suspension of any need to control or to fight himself or his partner contributed 9 to this singular experience of peaceful fulfillment He feels encapsulated by the factory and experiences the building as a body that en10 closes him Secretly, the protagonist saves enough money to leave his parents abruptly.
After a disturbing dream about the encounter with a double that accentuates the self-perpetuating internalized terror of his youth, he breaks with his family.
Fluchtpunkt, an autobiographical novel narrated from the perspective of an exiled young man, can be read as a sequel to Abschied von den 14 Eltern but is a text that stands on its own. When the first person narrator thinks about a specific childhood event, he begins to question the stability of his ethical principles. He vividly remembers how a game with other boys turned into an exercise in singling out somebody, attacking him, forcing him to jump on a raft, and endangering his life.
Ich hatte das Zeug in mir, an einer Exekution teilzunehmen. Unlike Thomas Mann and more akin to Brecht, Weiss never propagated a postulate of a collective and inherent German guilt. Instead, he wrote his play Die Ermittlung against the purposeful forgetfulness of German postwar leaders. The narrator of Fluchtpunkt is disillusioned by inhuman economical continuities and deplores the global cynicism of oppressive regimes and mar20 kets by which even Bach could be misused and distorted Dialogical encounters with his artist friends and their work are indispensable for the narrator.
Through his insistence on the concrete reality of the material environment, his friend and mentor Max Bernsdorf helps 21 the narrator gain inner stability in his new exile Er war Ahasverus. Er war solidarisch mit den Verfolgten. Meine Bilder lagen unter dicken Glasglocken, in einem Vakuum. In Anatols Bildern lag eine Gewalt, sie rissen die Welt auf. Meine Bilder verdeckten und verschwiegen 22 This character is based on the social psychologist Max Hodann — , who had a strong impact on Weiss during his early years in Swedish exile.
This emotional realization leads him to question his uncommitted apathetic existence. Aber er antwortete mir nicht mehr. Keine Antwort.
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At the end of the novel, the narrator evokes the memory of his friend and fellow painter Peter Kien in a desperate apostrophe that shifts into a laconic and bitter report: Fliehe, Peter Kien, bleibe nicht hier. Peter Kien wurde ermordet und verbrannt. Ich entkam. Mourning for his friends Uli and Peter Kien, he refuses to buy into any convenient ideological explanation for the German crimes.
One year after their sexual encounter, he visits Else again with the vague hope that she might welcome him as the father of their child. His blurry expectations are not fulfilled. Else does not have a child but a new lover, and they are in the middle of their dinner — In the spring of , a new girlfriend, Edna, is pregnant, but they decide to have an abortion and visit a Hungarian emigrant doctor — Later, when Edna is pregnant again, they decide that they want the child.
Exactly six years after his arrival in Stockholm, the narrator sees a theater performance in western Sweden where he has opened an exhibition of his paintings. There, he views an actress whose theater performance mesmerizes him. Like his previous relationships, the shared love with Cora does not last long. The only moment of at least a glimpse of an unforced understanding and recognition, which is not distorted by mutual idealizations and projected images, occurs more than a decade later when the narrator visits Cora after one of her guest performances in Stockholm.
They spend a night together without any illusions or pressure. The narrator realizes that Cora has aged. During this night, and probably because both the narrator and Cora know that it will be their last encounter and that they will not expect any new commitments, what used to be an addictive obsession with Cora turns into 29 genuine love and compassion Convinced that in the existing societal order fulfilling dialogical encounters will always be brief exceptions, the narrator refuses to be constrained by any conventions, traditions, and institutions.
Immune and opposed to any form of patriotic heroism, he champions the courage to invent an individualistic, antiheroic way of life and to consider his isola30 tion from any city or language a strength However, momentary euphoric celebrations of an unbound existence give way to periods of hopelessness and depression. Terrified by the omnipresent violence throughout Europe and taking rumors of concentration camps seriously, the narrator questions the relevance of art.
He undergoes a phase of fundamental skepticism about the continued validity and justifiability of 31 artistic expression Since he is not only plagued by political developments, but also by unresolved family conflicts, he seeks psychoanalytic treatment. Their generational distance leads him to suspect that the doctor silently sides with the world of his parents and their ideals of economic success and a stable order.
What the narrator calls his own wilderness and terror is, as he concedes in frustration and disappointment, not addressed at all throughout the therapeutic treatment. Despite his eventual termination of the sessions with Baahl, the narrator experiences the sessions at least partly as a helpful series of experiments.
He begins to embrace language because it can 32 serve as a tangible tool for a rational clarification of identity What makes the psychoanalytic sessions even more complicated is a linguistic difference. The narrator has to translate the memories and 33 sounds of his German childhood into Swedish The narrator links his experience with psychoanalysis in a foreign language to his struggle and search for a language that can become his creative medium. Both his native German language and Swedish, the language of his current environment, at times seem to be unattainable for an effortless and subtle use.
He eventually decides that German will help him most to recapture the hidden source of what he endeavors to explore and express, the 34 reality of his early past Not only through the experience of exhausting physical work in northern Sweden, where he reaches the limits of his capability to endure extreme temperatures and the constant danger of accidents, but also in the course of a medical problem, the narrator is reminded of the physicality and fragility of his life.
He gains a closer awareness of his bodily organs when he experiences acute pain. A kidney stone has to be surgically removed. This medical episode also leads to a more relentless emergence of childhood memories of sexual explorations and embarrassments — Writing is not only described as an art or a therapy, but also as a potentially autistic endeavor.
Weiss exemplifies this possibility with the character of a scientist who becomes obsessed with trying to contain the world in one comprehensive book. The mathematician Hieronymus abandoned a successful career in order to compose a monstrous and incoherent text collage that is supposed to reflect the whole epoch of destruction. Physically exhausted and approaching insanity, Hieronymous is brought to a mental institution — For Fanny, writing is nothing but an enjoyable game, and she denies any connection between her texts and her life.
Refusing to adopt any auctorial agenda, Fanny sees no need to transport social concerns or to exam36 ine her soul through writing — Fanny rejects writing as selfexamination. In her view, burdening literature with psychological intentions is driven by what she dismisses as the rigid moral of self-correction. When the narrator disagrees by pointing out that he favors a continuous creative process over arrangements of completed works of art, Fanny draws a parallel between his championing of the provisional status of creativity and his incapability to love a whole person and to establish a 37 stable relationship — The narrator displays a strong skepticism toward language and is convinced that writing always comes too late and produces a mere surro38 gate for lost realities However, life without the enriching confluence of diverse literary traditions is unthinkable to him.
His ceaseless receptivity prevents the narrator from excluding any of the works, writing styles, and thought strategies that he previously admired. His openness for flexible reinterpretations allow for an ongoing eclectic reception of literary works — In Paris, he experiences a momentary loss of identity and linguistic belonging. But this crisis leads to a new awareness of his freedom and of the possible contours of concrete creative projects. Realizing that with and in the Swedish language, he is neither able to reach his inner worlds nor to address and approach the world outside, the narrator decides to start from the beginning and to reconnect with his native German tongue.
The realization of his absolute freedom loses its terrifying aspect when he gains confidence in his ability to give a name to everything. By redefining and claiming his language as a useful and transportable tool rather than an imprisoning system of obligations, he is finally able to voice his needs and to believe in the possibility of experiencing a dialogue of effortless understanding 39 — The narrator emerges from a long phase of isolation. He recovers from a long series of communicative failures. Finally, he realizes that genuine dialogues are possible and that the isolation that had shaped his previous life can be overcome.
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